Renal patients are a very important part of daily clinical practice. A quarter to a third of all patients in clinic are represented by renal patients. It is therefore very important to decide which one's are an emergency and to react properly in order to establish the correct diagnosis and to start the right treatment in time.
The increasing number of cases for renal diseases in cats and dogs, but also the conditions generating this pathology as secondary impairment (leptospirosis, babesiosis, various poisonings) represent the fundamental need for developing peritoneal dialysis in cats and dogs.
Alongside dialysis, renal patients also need complex medical services (IV adjuvant therapy, enteral nutrition, feeding tubes), hospitalization and continuous assisted care.
Uraemia, renal disease and acute poisoning are just some of the frequently encountered medical conditions in dogs and cats. In acute kidney injury, a fast decrease of glomerular filtrations is determined by renal ischemia or by toxic induced lesions at this level. A fast diagnosis, as well as initiating a treatment course such as peritoneal dialysis may lead to a full recovery.
Chronic kidney disease is the result of long term nephropathy (glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis) that involves the irreversible reduction of active nephrons, compensated by nephron hypertrophy, which involves the drastic loss of glomerular filtrations. This condition develops progressively until anuria in the final stage. With chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis aims to amend clinical symptoms and to improve the patient’s quality of life.
Peritoneal dialysis has become a widely used technique in removing toxins (endogenous and exogenous) that can be dialyzed, both in chronic and acute renal patients. With possibilities for use in the veterinary field nowadays and considering the future development of veterinary medicine, peritoneal dialysis occupies an important place in renal disease therapy in dogs and cats, especially in the case of older animals and patients weighing up to 10 kg, that cannot withstand haemodialysis because of insufficient body mass or because of the underlying cardiopulmonary pathology.
In order to participate fully in this course, delegates should be familiar with the general guidelines of blood biochemistry and haematology and a basic of surgery.
- Understand the principles of peritoneal dialysis.
- Appreciate the different peritoneal catheter types.
- Devise an approach to peritoneal catheter placement, suture and care
- Appreciate omentectomy – the surgical technique
- Formulate an understanding of peritoneal dialysis fluids
- Understand the fluid exchange procedure
- Apply diagnostic techniques to monitoring the peritoneal dialysis patient including problems and complications
The first day will cover the theory behind peritoneal dialysis with the description of the mechanism and the techniques.
Delegates will spend the second day working on cadavers to perfect their technique of peritoneal dialysis, including the placement of the catheter, the catheter care techniques and the volumes of dialysate.
9:30 – 10:30 - Peritoneal dialysis, principles and techniques – intro and basics
10:30 – 10:45 - Break
11:15 – 12:00 - Peritoneal dialysis – catheters and fluids
12:00 - 12:45 - Peritoneal dialysis – volumes
12:40 – 13:30 - Lunch
13:30 – 14:45 - Peritoneal dialysis – Monitoring the PD patient, problems and complications
14:45 – 15:00 - Break
15:15 – 16:45 - Peritoneal dialysis, case presentation
16:45 – 17:15 - Peritoneal dialysis, case presentation
09:00 – 11:00 - Peritoneal dialysis, "hands-on", individual work under guidance
11:00 – 11:15 - Break
11:30 – 13:00 -Peritoneal dialysis, "hands-on", individual work under guidance
13:00-14:00 - Lunch
14:00 – 15:30 - Peritoneal dialysis, "hands-on", individual work under guidance
15:30 – 15:45 - Break
15:45 – 17:00 - Peritoneal dialysis, "hands-on", what have we learned today?